Welcome to Linguis Europae, the EUC's language blog!

Linguis Europae is dedicated to a range of topics involving official state, regional, and minority languages in the EU. Posts are written in five languages by UI students and faculty! Check back regularly for updates!

Bridging the Gap: Language and Community in Action in East Central Illinois

Skye Mclean discusses the East Central Illinois Refugee Mutual Assistance Center (ECRIMAC), which provides services essential to refugee and immigrant resettlement in East-Central Illinois and aids in the exchange and preservation of their respective cultures.

Place and Space: Another Perspective on Crimea

Senior Andrey Starosin offers his perspective on the current events taking place in Crimea.

French Professor Revamps Course on "Language and Minorities in Europe"

Linguis Europae's own Zsuzsanna Fagyal and her course "Languages and Minorities in Europe" were featured in a recent issue of the School of Literatures, Cultures, and Linguistics.

Un'Ode al "Dialàtt Bulgnaiś": An Ode to the Bolgnese Dialect

Kaitlyn Russell muses on her fondness for the Italian dialect, Bolognese.

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Place and Space: Another Perspective on Crimea

by Andrey Starostin

In current events concerning Russia’s involvement with Ukraine, there is a lot to be said about the culture, specifically language(s), and their significance in influencing opinions and outcomes.  Crimea is today’s topic at hand, and in this blog I aim to address the elements making Crimea seem like a discrepancy in the first place.

In reference to CNN’s article, “Ukraine cries 'robbery' as Russia annexes Crimea,” Matt Smith and Alla Eshchenko write about Russia’s claiming of Crimea.  They write, “Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk called it ‘a robbery on an international scale,’ one that Kiev will never accept.” At the same time, they write of Putin’s exclaim, “’In our hearts, we know Crimea has always been an inalienable part of Russia.’”

The way I view what I am labeling as “The Crimean Discrepancy” is a matter of perspective and opinions.  Perspective as a concept claims authenticity in terms of the “eye of the beholder.”  I would consider Crimea as a battle of who is beholding the perspective.  Lets look at some facts first.

Image Source
With the argument of authenticity in mind, I consult the ever-present oracle that is Wikipedia.  Here is what it says in a nutshell. As of February 2014, Ukrainian authorities lost control over Crimea to Russia.  However, as seen and heard from Kiev, Crimea continues to be recognized as an autonomous territory of Ukraine. The recognized languages within the region are Ukrainian as an official language and Russian along with Crimean Tatar. MOST IMPORTANTLY, as of 2001, ethnic groups in Crimea yield the most influential information.  58.32% of the ethnic groups in Crimea are Russian.  Following at 24.32% are Ukrainians and at 12.1% are the Crimean Tatars.

Lets think about this for a second.  In terms of language and ethnicity, Crimea is officially recognized as Ukrainian in state language and territory.  However, “Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication” and “government duties are fulfilled mainly in Russian” making Russian “a de facto official language.”

With this in mind, let’s return to perspective. I propose that the discrepancy is a matter of the anthropological identification of space and place.  My rudimentary rationale for this term is that space and place can be compared to “house and home,” where a house is a building you can live in, and home is the significance tied to the location by living in it.  From the eyes of Ukraine, Crimea is their territory; it is specifically a location in their country’s boundaries.  With reference to the almighty Google Maps, it can be seen that Crimea does indeed have a physical connection to Ukraine, while only coming close to the southwestern boundaries of Russia.  

Keeping in mind the anthropology lesson, Ukraine can claim Crimea as their “space”.  In opposition, Russia has claim over Crimea as a “place”: they have ethnic and cultural dominance over the area and their presence in this space grants them the ability to refer to Crimea also as a “place.”

In an article from MyMedia, progress is listed in reference to schools within Crimea.  “Among 58 children of the 11th grade, 27 want to continue their education in Ukraine, while the rest will stay in Crimea, where authorities are planning to change schools' criteria to match that of the Russian education system within the next three years.”  These facts provide evidence to Russian influence in the education system, showing Russia’s claim over Crimea as further spreading.

Politically, dominance over Crimea will remain an argument.  Language and culture have always generated arguments of authenticity, as well.  How “cultured” you are, or so to speak, can be swayed whether or not you speak a language with fluency.  Crimea, based on the facts, is Russian when it comes to fluency in language, but it is officially Ukrainian… correction, it was Ukrainian. Thus, I would be comfortable with calling Crimea a gray area.  The region is stuck in a situation where its location is outweighed by the internal dominance of a Russian past, a past marked by Russian language use.  I would not go as far as saying that either party should have the region to themselves, but it remains labeled on the map as an autonomous region of Ukraine with a majority of its population being ethnically Russian.  Let us remember the Chechen War: is Crimea headed in the same trajectory? What do you think?

Article: http://www.cnn.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/ukraine-crisis/
Article : http://mymedia.org.ua/en/articles/revolution/ukrainian_language_under_siege_in_crimea.html
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_Republic_of_Crimea

Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Crimea_republic_map.png

The author of this blog entry is Andrey Starostin, senior at the University of Illinois. He is majoring in English Literature. Andrey is planning on pursuing professional photography while working on his book. He is a native speaker of Russian. He wrote this text in the seminar LING 418, Language and Minorities in Europe.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Un'Ode al "Dialàtt Bulgnaiś": An Ode to the Bolognese Dialect

by Kaitlyn K. Russell

When we list reasons to go abroad, one of the most common is learning a foreign language. Attending the University of Bologna in Italy allowed me to become fluent in one of the world's most beautiful languages, but it also allowed me to access a lesser-known dialect: Bolognese (Bulgnaiś, to the speakers). The dialect did not make itself immediately known-- most of the inhabitants of the city are university students and professors, hailing from across the country and around the globe. We favored standard Italian in the classroom and on the streets. I was never asked out for a vén or a cafà but rather a bicchiere di vino (a glass of wine) or un caffè (a coffee).

"Nutella" is also Bolognese for Nutella ☺
Most of my contact with Bolognese came from teaching English at the local middle school, Scuola Secondaria Gandino. Although at first I was caught off guard-- a child missing their mèder (mother) was strange to me-- I grew to love the little bits of this bizarre and charming language: the exaggerated intonation, the rounded vowels (ä and å), and the brusque parsing of words. Bolognese was not only in the words, but also in the accents, the slang, and the colloquialisms.

But to my little eleven-year-old students, Bolognese was not their madrelingua. The dialect, like all Italian dialects, was stigmatized in the 20th century in favor of standard Italian. This new connection of dialect to low social status and bad manners was entirely driven by politics. A 1901 dictionary by Gaspare Ungarelli was an honorable attempt to retrofit the dialect into the standard Italian alphabet, but was only moderately successful.

This lack of standardization has become a trait of Gallo-Italic languages. Unlike others (i.e. Occitan, a Gallo-Romance) that have become standardized, governmental interference prevented the standardization and transmission of this beautiful and historic language. Only traces of Bolognese remain, left over from grandparents and great-grandparents. Emilian (which is spoken in Emilia-Romagna, a northern region of the peninsula) is not a recognized minority language in the EU or in Italy, therefore neither is Bolognese. They are now known as "regional languages," but do not necessarily receive special treatment or protection unless there is constant and successful pressure from the local community. Italy, a country proudly divided into the remnants of one-time strong and famous city-states like Venice and Rome (just ask any soccer fan what they think of a neighboring team), has seen a recent resurgence in independent dialect learning.

It is a common misconception that the dialects of Italy stem from Italian. Florentine was just a regular dialect up until the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, when it was made the national language and renamed. Italian is therefore a relatively recent invention, developing simultaneously with the minority languages of each city-state on the Italian peninsula.

Legally, the Italians consider all minority languages spoken in the nation to be dialects rather than languages, although these dialects stem from a myriad of sources. A strong origin in vulgar Latin unites many, but bordering language groups also influenced languages. For example, Piedmontese, Ligurian and Emiliano are part of a language family that is mutually intelligible with French. Greek trade in the south, or frequent German contact in the north has defined more than a few dialects. It is not beneficial to think of the layout of the mutual intelligibility of Italian dialects as a spectrum-- we must instead think of it as a family tree.

Bear with me, kind reader, as I try to trace the exact lineage of Bolognese here. Vulgar Latin breaks into Eastern Romance (ex Romanian) and Italo-Western, which in turn breaks into Italian/Florentine (an Italo-Dalmatian language) and Western Romance, which encompasses Iberian languages (Spanish, Portuguese) and the Gallo-Romance type. The Gallo-Romance variety has four subsets: Franco-Provençal, Occitano, Languages D'oil and Gallo-Italic. The Gallo-Italic languages, found in north Italy, south Switzerland, San Marino, and Monaco are too many to detail here. One specific type is Emiliano, which roughly corresponds to the region known today as Emilia-Romagna. This type can be further broken down into Western (ex. Parmigiano), Central (ex. Reggiano), and Eastern Emiliano. Bolognese is an Eastern variety.

By exploring the connections between language families we can see why Bolognese is not mutually intelligible with, say, Romanesque, but is with Monégasque (the dialect of Monaco), despite these two places being equidistant from each other. The history of the Bolognese dialect is as long and complicated as its family tree.

Bolognese can be traced to its medieval past as a city of education. L'Università di Bologna was founded in 1088, making it the oldest university in the world. Dante Alighieri wrote that Bolognese was "a more beautiful language than most." He described it as soft yet abrupt, and likely developing from the positive influence of other languages. He goes on to say that Bolognese, "tempered by the combination of opposites [...] should achieve a praiseworthy degree of elegance; and this, in my opinion, is beyond doubt true." (De Vulgari Eloquentia, Liber I, XV, 2-5). Dante, a supporter of vernacular language usage, spoke and wrote in Florentine, and it was because of this that the dialect of Florence was chosen as the official language in 1861. Some of the first supporters of vernacular language were the medieval troubadours, who composed Bolognese songs and lyrical poetry long before the birth of the famous poet.

Here are some fun Bolognese phrases to try out next time you are in the city, along with a guide to pronunciation:

A t vói bän ("ah-t voi bayeen") = I love you
A t aringrâzi ("ah-t ah-ring-grahtzi") = Thank you
A se vdrän ("ah say va-draeen") = Goodbye
Scuśèm ("skoosem") = Excuse me
Socmel ("sock-meyl") = Suck it (a declaration of surprise)

When it rains and the lumèghe (snails) come out, you might shout "socmel!"
Bibliography and Sources for Reader
Gaspare Ungarelli, Vocabolario del Dialetto Bolognese (Como: Insubria, 1901)

Pietro Mainoldi, Manuale dell'Odierno Dialetto Bolognese, Suoni e Segni, Grammatica - Vocabolario (Bologna: Società tipografica Mareggiani, 1950)

Luigi Lepri and Daniele Vitali, Dizionario Bolognese-Italiano Italiano-Bolognese (Pendragon, 2007)

"Where Italian Came From, and 3 Essential Words in Bolognese!" from Madrelingua: Italian Language School, November 2013

Google, "Gûgol Bulåggna,"

The author of this blog entry is Kaitlyn Russell, senior at the University of Illinois. She is majoring in art history, with minors in architectural history and Italian. Kaitlyn is planning on entering the world of fine art auctions after graduation. She wrote this text in the seminar LING 418, Language and Minorities in Europe. 


Wednesday, April 9, 2014

French Professor Revamps Course on "Language and Minorities in Europe"

Zsuzsanna Fagyal is an EUC-affiliated faculty member.

This article was originally posted in the Spring 2014 School of Literatures, Cultures, and Linguistics Newsletter.

Zsuzsanna Fagyal, associate professor of French
Zsuzsanna Fagyal was used to teaching small seminars, so the first time she walked into the classroom for a newly revamped course called “Language and Minorities in Europe,” she couldn’t believe her eyes:

“I almost fainted!” she remembers, laughing.

As it turned out, 62 students had shown up on the first day of classes, interested in the content.

That was in 2011. Today, “considerable” is how she describes interest in the course, which Fagyal, an associate professor of French, and Professor Doug Kibbee started at the U of I seven years ago. The course marked the first time an academic department (French) and the European Union Center (EUC) joined forces for course development. According to Fagyal, the course was based “on Doug’s vision,” primarily as a language policy class. 

She contributed by making it relevant for socio-linguists, developing it as an EU survey course while Kibbee in turn became the first director of the School of Literatures, Cultures and Linguistics. The course initially focused on France, Germany, and multilingualism in the European Union. 

Fagyal, who has a degree in linguistics (PhD), Romance and Slavic philology (MA), and a graduate minor in EU studies, was soon struck by how many different regions could be encompassed within this course, including regions of Spain, Italy, the Baltic countries, and Eastern Europe. In addition, there are the Scandinavian countries and the regions that formerly comprised Yugoslavia. The focus, however, has always remained the European Union.

To make enrollment manageable, the course is now capped at 35 students. With its number designation of 418, it is offered to undergraduates and graduates for 3 or 4 credits, respectively, in seven different programs and departments. Currently being taught by Fagyal during the 2014 spring semester, the plan is for Fagyal and Eda Derhemi, a lecturer in the Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, to alternate teaching the course each year. Derhemi became involved in this project in 2012 and co-taught the course in 2013. She graduated in linguistics and literature at the University of Tirana, Albania. She received an MA in linguistics and a PhD in communication from the University of Illinois. She has previously worked for UNESCO and also as a correspondent for Deutsche Welle. She is a regular writer of opinion pieces in the main Albanian media. 

Derhemi and Fagyal currently have a related text that was just accepted for publication by Multilingual Matters. Titled Languages and Minorities in Europe: An Introduction, it is intended as a print and e-textbook, with an accompanying website. It will be published in 2015.

With the success of the 418 course, “Language and Minorities in Europe,” Fagyal and Derhemi have joined with Marina Terkourafi, associate professor of linguistics, to develop a new SLCL course, “Languages and Cultures of the Mediterranean.” The trio received support from SLCL in addition to one of the five EUC Research and Course Development Grants for the development of this new course. EUC grants support proposals pursuing contemporary European Union topics that meet the highest standards of excellence and contribute significantly to the advancement of EU studies and the center’s academic programs at the U of I. Like 418, “Languages and Cultures of the Mediterranean” will be a lecture-based class focusing on the present while encompassing the necessary amount of history for students’ overall level of understanding. 

Fagyal reflects on all these developments by commenting, “I’m enjoying it as a scholar: it has greatly informed my research.” On reaching out to other departments and area studies on campus, she explains: “I feel the language aspects are often under-explained in the social sciences.”

In the “Language and Minorities in Europe” course this spring, Fagyal will require students to form small groups and work out official state and minority language policy and planning schemes for an imaginary European country. Policies have to be realistic based on the geography and history of Europe and language regimes studied in class. Groups have to include students with a variety of majors and specializations. In the end each group will have to present their nation-state and explain how they are planning on providing protection for their official state and minority languages. “It must be realistic and justifiable,” says Fagyal, adding, “students must show they can reapply knowledge learned in class.” 

Students also write a language blog, one of many reasons why the course is so popular, as students can instantly react to or comment on current events concerning language across disparate areas in Europe. Some of the comments written in earlier years have received comments from the general public and language activists in Europe. These blogs can be viewed on the EUC homepage at euc.illinois.edu. Finally, students will conclude the class by writing a critical paper of their choice, done after completing extensive readings throughout the 15-week semester. 

Together, Fagyal, her students, and her teaching associates are on a journey that continues to change and grow, and provide new avenues for learning along the way. 


Monday, April 7, 2014

Will YOU Be the Welsh Learner of the Year?

by Amy Lundell

The time to nominate yourself as Welsh Learner of the Year for 2014 has just recently passed—the deadline was March 31st—but don’t lose hope, there’s always next year! Oh, you never even considered nominating yourself for this prestigious award? Why is that? As long as you (1) are at least eighteen years old, (2) started learning Welsh in the last ten years, and (3) speak Welsh quite fluently, you are eligible to apply! Oh I see, you don’t know any Welsh… yet.

Welsh, a Celtic language, is one of two official languages in Wales, an autonomous community of the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth on the west coast of the British Isles. English is the other official language of Wales, and a number of government policies assure that English and Welsh receive equal treatment: Welsh Language Act 1993, Government of Wales Act 1998, and The National Assembly for Wales Official Languages Act 2012. Although English and Welsh are considered equals, for example both English and Welsh are displayed on road signs, 100% of the almost 3 million citizens of Wales speak English fluently, while fluency in Welsh can only be claimed by about 19% of the population of the country, amounting to about half a million Welsh speakers within Wales.

Image Source
Despite this relatively small population of Welsh speakers, they are a fiercely proud bunch. Welsh is present in nearly every form of media; there exists a Welsh language television channel called S4C and a Welsh language radio station called BBC Radio Cymru. There is also an annual festival, the Eisteddfod, which brings Welsh speakers together to celebrate their language and their culture. Besides just the Welsh Learner of the Year competition, the winner of which is announced each year at the festival, there are also stage and written competitions held at the annual Eisteddfod. To encourage participation in these three competitions, the organizers of the Eisteddfod give the following motivations: it’ll boost your confidence, it’s a chance to meet and share experiences with other learners, good prizes, and it’s fun! What wonderfully uplifting and joyful incentives!

Dedicated learners of the Welsh language have been winning the Welsh Learner of the Year award since 1990. The winner in 2013, Martyn Croydon, was first introduced to Welsh as he travelled to Wales on holiday with his family. Since that time Croydon dreamed of integrating himself into Welsh society, and he has now made his dream a reality: in an interview Croydon told BBC, “It’s becoming part of my life now, I do everything through Welsh now—socialize, work.” The three other 2013 Welsh Learner of the Year finalists, Craig ab Iago, Kathleen Isaac, and Darran Lloyd, have similar stories about how they have really loved learning Welsh. This apparent love of and desire for a minority language is surely attractive to any minority language aspiring to grow.

It is important to note that Welsh’s minority language status is debatable because it is an officialhttp://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Default_en.asp since Great Britain ratified the Charter in (click on ‘languages covered’ under ‘Charter’).
language of Wales, which means that it enjoys a lot of political support in the region where it is spoken natively. But it can still be called a minority language in the sense that the population that speaks it is in the minority when compared to the rest of Great Britain. Welsh’s ‘minority’ status is also acknowledged by the Council of Europe: the language is featured among the eighty-four minority languages spoken by two hundred and six national minorities or linguistic groups in Europe. These languages enjoy some degree of protection under The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages:

In order to thrive as well as the Welsh language, policy makers working with other minority languages should seriously consider adopting this practice of rewarding learners of their language and encouraging the celebration of their language and culture in community with one another. It is true to say that each language learner must be self-motivated and have a personal desire to learn and to use a minority language in order for the language’s population to grow. Fun festivals and enticing awards are not necessarily the answer for stirring up motivation and desire, because it must be genuine, but one should never underestimate what outside programs and the influence of a community can accomplish.

So why not start learning Welsh tomorrow? You could be rewarded with a shiny new trophy and a handful of prize money! And if you don’t win, at the very least you would be one new valuable contribution to the population of proud Welsh speakers who maintain and even help to grow a precious minority language. What do you have to lose? Here’s your first phrase: Yr wyf am i ymweld â Cymru.

“Eisteddfod 2013: Welsh Learner of the Year Unveiled.” BBC News. 7 Aug. 2013. Web.
26 Mar. 2014.

“Language.” Wales.com. Welsh Government, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.

“Welsh Learner of the Year Competition.” Eisteddfod.org. The National Eisteddfod of
Wales, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.

Amy Lundell is a senior in architecture at the University of Illinois. Amy is planning on working with a Christian mission organization in Southeast Asia for the next two years and is interested to see where this opportunity will take her next. She wrote this text in LING 418, Language and Minorities in Europe.


Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Dr. Zsuzsanna Fagyal Speaks on Trilingualism with WBEZ Radio

Dr. Zsuzsanna Fagyal, Associate Professor in French and a European Union Center-affiliated faculty member, was featured on WBEZ's program Worldwide.

From the webpage:
The European Union has 28 member states and 24 official languages. With a staff of 1,750 linguists it has one of the largest translation services in the world. In 2005 it set a goal to “increase individual multilingualism until every citizen has practical skills in at least two languages in addition to his or her mother tongue.” Some countries have done better than others in achieving that goal.  We’ll take a look at why some countries have succeeded while others lag behind with Zsuzsanna Fagyal, a professor of French at the University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign.   She’s working on a book "Languages and Minorities in Europe” She’s also affiliated with the European Union Center at the University of Illinois.

If you wish to listen to the conversation, you can do so below or by visiting the WBEZ Worldview webpage:


Linguis Europae - Season 2

Welcome to a new season on Linguis Europae! No, this is not an April’s fool joke! We are delighted to announce the official opening of a new season of exciting blog entries on European languages and their relationship to political integration, identity, conflict, and migration in the twenty-eight member states of the European Union and beyond. In the great tradition of your favorite TV series, here are some of the highlights that you might find especially interesting to read on this site every other week.

There is, first of all, the language and politics in Ukraine, the talk of the global village since Crimea became – yet again – officially Russian-speaking in March 2014. As you will find out from a series of blog entries featured on our site in the next few months, tensions over status-planning for Russian in the Ukraine have been building up for quite some time. In the summer of 2012 the Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych wrote into law that Russian can become a regional minority language in cities and municipalities that wish to pass such local language laws. In principle, of course, there is nothing unusual about this: there are many examples of broad language legislation for instance in Spain and Italy where they represent a preferred way of granting the right to linguistic self-determination to people without explicitly trying to tell these people what to do with their languages.

However, as one of the Brookings’ Institute’s Senior Foreign Policy Fellows was quick to point out in 2012, “what that language law actually meant for national unity” in Ukraine was on everybody’s mind and far from being crystal-clear. Russian is no longer a preferred second – or additional – language of an entire generation of young Ukrainians that grew up speaking and learning Ukrainian since the country won its independence from the Soviet Union twenty years ago in the summer of 1991.

Increasingly westernized and less and less bilingual in Russian, this generation has, indeed, changed the course of events in February 2014 when it removed Yanukovych from office after one of its bloodiest demonstrations in over a decade. Tune in to our web site to hear what happened next as more postings will be featured on this question in later weeks.

This spring will bring another potentially explosive topic on linguistic self-determination in Europe: we will go to Catalonia to listen in on preparations for the planned November 9, 2014 referendum on this autonomous region’s independence from Spain. We will analyse the debate, starting from a recent, March 25, court ruling by a Spanish court of appeals that challenged Catalonia’s – one of Spain’s autonomous “communities” – right to hold such a referendum: http://time.com/38137/catalonia-independence-referendum-ruled-unconstitutional-spain/.

Note that the question that Catalan nationals will be asked to answer broke down the issue into two constitutive parts: statehood first, independence second. If the referendum is allowed to go on, voters will be first asked: “Do you want Catalonia to be a state?” If their answer is “yes,” then they will be asked to move onto the next question and chose the way in which the state that they envision should relate to Spain: “Do you want that state to be independent?” Find out why subtle wording like this matters and how the Catalan government had planned for an increasingly more extensive use of Catalan at the local level and in the European Union since the 2006 Statute of Autonomy.

Queen Elizabeth the Second addresses the two houses of the British Parliament every year in May. In addition to signalling the official opening of the new legislative season, however, the Queen’s 2013 speech before members of the House of Lords and of Commons touched to an important matter for the British Commonwealth: … (If you are thinking of the birth of her great-grandson George, you are only off by a few months, as she mentioned him in her Christmas speech that year)… Scotland.

“My government will continue to make the case for Scotland to remain part of the United Kingdom”, she stated, following a pledge to implement “institutional improvements” in Northern Ireland and “new electoral arrangements for the National Assembly for Wales.” But this time Scotland is not Commonwealth business as usual. Unlike in Catalonia where the courts are still debating whether self-determination is even a good question to ask, in Scotland the referendum on whether this autonomous region should be an independent state within the British Commonwealth is firmly scheduled to take place on 18 September 2014. It is unclear what place the national languages of Scotland – Scottish Gaelic and Scots – will have in this new state. The 1998 Scotland Act that gave the Scots their own Parliament and a great deal of legislative power in matters of culture. And yet, serious language planning initiatives for the two national languages have not been on anyone’s agenda. The Guardian’s 2011 note on Scots, “The return of the Scots language: In an independent Scotland, might Scots become the official national tongue”, reads like a rhetorical question framing new and exotic editions of Roald Dahl’s children’s books published in Scots, a language forgotten by many and now learned only by the very few.

Tune in every other week to read blog entries written by students and faculty at the University of Illinois in English, en français, auf Deutsch, en español, in italiano, and по-русски.

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